Peru mummies essay

By Richard Gray for MailOnline. The remains of four bodies dating back to 1,AD have been discovered in a strange sitting position in a series of tombs.

Archaeologists discovered the skeletons of three adult women and one man in the middle of a residential neighbourhood in Lima, Peru.

Egypt Opens Ancient Coffins To Find Perfectly Preserved Mummies - NBC Nightly News

They are part of a civilisation that dominated Peru before the rise of the Inca, and while the remains appear to have decomposed, archaeologists believe they were once wrapped in textiles in an attempt to mummify them. Scroll down for video. The skeletal remains of four pre-Incan 'mummies' pictured who were part of a civilisation that lived up to 1, years ago in Peru have been unearthed at an ancient ceremonial site in Lima, Peru. Archaeologists said the bodies appear to have been wrapped in textiles and buried in a seated position looking out to sea.

The four skeletons, who were found in separate tombs, were part of the ancient Ichma culture that formed following the break-up of the South American Wari Empire before later being absorbed into the Inca Empire. The figures, some of which still have hair, were found seated, looking out towards the sea, alongside offerings such as ceramics and weaving tools. It later spread north into the Rimac valley formed following the break-up of the South American Wari Empire before later being absorbed into the Inca Empire in around The Ichma people spoke Aymara - a language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes, as well as some Bolivians.

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In the Huaca Huantille, at least nine mummies have been discovered, buried with ceramic items and jewellery. Excavations in Pachacamac found a further 80 mummies in a burial chamber. The exact reason for this position is still unclear, but archaeologists believe it must have had some ritual significance. The Incas, and likely cultures before them including the Ichma, believed there was a link between the living and the gods. As a result, mummies would be 'consulted' on important occasions and were often given 'places of honour' near temples and on high ground.

The living used artificial techniques such as embalming and drying out the flesh, known as desiccation, to preserve their dead. Spanish conquerors during the 16th century were reportedly so disgusted by the ritual that they destroyed many mummies after looting their graves. This may explain the lack of other artefacts, and even the cloth the mummies were wrapped in, in the newly-discovered tombs. It is the latest in a number of ancient tombs to be discovered in Peru's capital, but these are among the first from the Ichma, or Ychsma era, helping to provide new clues about this little known, early culture.

Isabel Flores, an archaeologist and director of the excavation at Huaca Pucllana, the ancient ceremonial complex in the Miraflores district of Lima where the skeletons were found, said: 'There are four human burial sites, for adult individuals, three women and one man, who lived between the years to Some of the skeletons still have hair and were found buried along with ceramic pots and weaving tools pictured.

While the remains appear to have decomposed, archaeologists believe they were once wrapped in cloth in an attempt to mummify them.

In particular, archaeologists believe the bodies had been wrapped in hand-woven natural materials before being placed in a seated position in the tombs looking out to sea illustrated. Mummification was an ancient Andean way to worship ancestors.

A recent scientific breakthrough has enabled scientists to learn new details about the ancient mummified remains of people from the Incan civilisation and those that came before.

The Incas, and likely cultures before them, believed there was a link between the living and the gods. They used artificial techniques such as embalming and drying out the flesh, known as desiccation, to preserve their dead.The Mummy Throughout history, the mummy has been stereotyped as no more than an egyptian deceased wrapped in cloth, whose spirit returns from the dead in order to haunt mankind.

However, as literature and mythology present, Mummies exist in modern context promptly as scorned lovers, scientists, past rulers, wronged souls, or a combination of all. After all, even in death we are infrequently. On a recent trip to the Houston Museum of Natural Science I discover the fascinating truth behind mummies. Specific Purpose: To introduce three kinds of mummy from different culture. Have you watched movies about mummy, such as The mummy and The night at museum before?

Recently, there is an exhibition held by Hong Kong. The Importance of Mummification One of the first thoughts that usually comes to an individuals mind when thinking about Egyptian history is pharaohs, pyramids and mummies. This is a common thought that has led many historians and archaeologist to study Egyptian history.

My research will be focused on mummies. I hope to show you how important mummification was for the Egyptians by my research done on the history, purpose and process. The horror film of the studios years gives physical shape and specific presence to metaphysical, notions of. It may date back many years, but was not perfected till many years later to what we officially call mummification.

Dunand 27 We call it mummification and the bodies mummies because of the Persian word for bitumen, which is "mummia". The reason for this name is because of the dark skin of mummies, which people mistook for bitumen.

Bitumen is a mineral formed for a tar like substance. Becket 31 One of the main reasons to prepare the body, making it look like bitumen, was for. The most noticing aspect of Egyptian religion is its obsession with immortality and the belief of life after death. This sculpture can show you this on how mummification gave upbringing to complex arts in ancient Egypt. The sculpture is the Mummy Case of Paankhenamun. The artwork is currently viewed at The Art Institute of Chicago. The sculpture was from the third period, Dynasty 22, in ancient Egypt.

However, the sculpture has many features to it that makes it so unique in ancient Egypt from any. The most well known mummies are those of Egyptian Pharaohs. The body of Tutankhamun is the most renowned fully intact mummy. Several other royal mummies have survived the centuries but they have been re-wrapped and stripped of their jewels.

Re-wrapped mummies were not properly completed and were always hurried for fear of divine retribution.

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The Egyptians worshipped several animals.A double-spouted jar with the face of a jaguar made in the Paracas culture — BCE. Mummies: New Secrets from the Tombswhich opens September 18, explores the similarities and differences between traditions of mummification in ancient Egypt and Peru.

The interior of the mummy was finally revealed in with CT scanning. Another major component of the exhibition are the results of scanning begun in that progressed from X-rays to CT scans. Replica of a Chinchorro mummy mask. More revealing are the acts of visitation. There are plans to bring the exhibition to other natural history museums following Los Angeles. The CT scanning, in revealing more personal details of each mummy, has restored some degree of humanity to the mummies.

An ancient Egyptian mummy known as the Gilded Lady, with a headdress made of cartonage glued layers of papyrus or linen and covered with gilding. The golden skin signified divinity. When complete, the limestone sarcophagus would have weighed several thousand pounds.

Sign up for our email newsletters! As arts communities around the world experience a time of challenge and change, accessible, independent reporting on these developments is more important than ever.

Please consider supporting our journalism, and help keep our independent reporting free and accessible to all. Become a Member. Allison C. Meier is a former staff writer for Hyperallergic. Originally from Oklahoma, she has been covering visual culture and overlooked history for print More by Allison Meier.

Skip to content. October 20, Support Hyperallergic As arts communities around the world experience a time of challenge and change, accessible, independent reporting on these developments is more important than ever.

Essay on Mummies

Allison Meier.The Chinchorro mummies are mummified remains of individuals from the South American Chinchorro culturefound in what is now northern Chile.

They are the oldest examples of artificially mummified human remains, having been buried up to two thousand years before the Egyptian mummies. Although the earliest mummy that has been found in Egypt dated around BCE, [1] the oldest anthropogenically modified Chinchorro mummy dates from around BCE. Many ancient cultures of fisherfolk existed, tucked away in the arid river valleys of the Andesbut the Chinchorro made themselves unique by their dedicated preservation of the dead.

While many cultures throughout the world have sought to focus on preserving the dead elite, the Chinchorro tradition performed mummification on all members of their society, making them archaeologically significant.

The decision of egalitarian preservation is proven in the mummification of the relatively less productive members of society meaning those who could not contribute to the welfare of others; the elderlychildreninfants and miscarried fetuses.

It is often the case that children and babies received the most elaborate mummification treatments. The earliest one, the Acha man, dates to BCE. Often Chinchorro mummies were elaborately prepared by removing the internal organs and replacing them with vegetable fibers or animal hair. In some cases, an embalmer would remove the skin and flesh from the dead body and replace them with clay. Sincewhen Max Uhle began his work in Aricaan estimated mummies have been found by archaeologists.

Fifty-four adults were found: 27 female, 20 male and 7 of indeterminate sex; 42 children were also found: 7 female, 12 male, 23 indeterminate. The mummies may have served as a means of assisting the soul in surviving, and to prevent the bodies from frightening the living. The representatives of the Chinchorro culture was determined by mitochondrial haplogroup A2. Bernardo Arriaza is a Chilean physical anthropologist who contributed a lot of the knowledge about Chinchorro mummification.

Starting inhe published numerous studies on the subject. InArriaza created a classification of the Chinchorro mummies that is widely used. While the overall manner in which the Chinchorro mummified their dead changed over the years, several traits remained constant throughout their history.

In excavated mummies, archaeologists found skin and all soft tissues and organs, including the brainremoved from the corpse.

After the soft tissues had been removed, sticks reinforced bones while the skin was stuffed with vegetable matter before reassembling the corpse.

The mummy received a clay mask even if the mummy was already completely covered in dried clay; a process which the body was wrapped in reeds left to dry out for 30 to 40 days. Uhle categorized the types of mummification he saw into three categories: simple treatment, complex treatment, and mud-coated mummies. He believed that these occurred chronologically, the mummification process becoming more complex as time went on.

The soil is very rich in nitrates which, when combined with other factors such as the aridity of the Atacama Desert, ensure organic preservation. Salts halt bacterial growth; the hot, dry conditions facilitate rapid desiccation, evaporating all bodily fluids of the corpses.

Soft tissues, as a result, dry before they decay and a naturally preserved mummy is left. The black mummy technique to BCE involved taking the dead person's body apart, treating it, and reassembling it. The head, arms, and legs were removed from the trunk; the skin was often removed, too.

The body was heat-dried, and the flesh and tissue were completely stripped from the bone by using stone tools.

Craniums and Controversies of the Chachapoya Cloud Warriors

Evidence exists that the bones were dried by hot ashes or coal. After reassembly, the body was then covered with a white ash paste, filling the gaps with grass, ashes, soil, animal hair and more.

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The paste was also used to fill out the person's normal facial features. The person's skin including facial skin with a wig attachment of short black human hair was refitted on the body, sometimes in smaller pieces, sometimes in one almost-whole piece.

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Sea lion skin was sometimes used as well. Then the skin or, in the case of children, who were often missing their skin layer, the white ash layer was painted with black manganese giving their color. The red mummy technique BCE to BCE was a technique in which rather than disassemble the body, many incisions were made in the trunk and shoulders to remove internal organs and dry the body cavity. The head was cut from the body so that the brain could be removed, after which the skin would be pasted back on, which would often just be covered with a clay mask.

The body was packed with various materials to return it to somewhat more-normal dimensions, sticks used to strengthen it, and the incisions sewn up using reed cord. A "hat" made out of black clay held the wig in place. Except for the wig and often the black face, everything was then painted with red ochre.It had been closed since BCE and its discovery kicked off a world wide interest in mummies that continues to today.

peru mummies essay

Listen Listening Visitors were there to enjoy the museum and spend the night camping out on the exhibit floors. A small boy, maybe about six years old, walked up to me trailing his parents. His face reflected intense concern. He wanted to know if he could ask me a question. Tutankhamun's death mask. Now I suspect that most of you would have stopped right there. I continued to elaborate spectacularly on the subject. I spend a good deal of my time at the Museum around our two Egyptian mummies, and teach quite a lot of programming focused on them.

Outside of Chicago, the Public Museum is one of the few venues in this region of the country where you can see real mummies, face to face. And over the years, our visitors—young and old—have found that them to be a source of intense curiosity. And this is not surprising. Since the beginning, mummies have been objects of fascination and considerable misadventure.

Ancient people all over the globe mummified their dead. In fact, the Egyptians were not even the first to make mummies. That was likely the Chinchorro people of what we now know as Chile and Peru.

They were mummifying their dead in the dry air of the coastal desert about three thousand years before the Egyptians even thought about it. Head of a Chinchorro mummy. We all have the image in our heads of a kid wrapped in toilet paper stumbling around and trick-or-treating at Halloween. Napoleon knew this, and sent mummies back to France during his disastrous military campaign in Egypt in the late 18th century, generating our modern interest in them.This week, reports and bizarre images of a group of five mummy-like bodies from Peru that have three-fingered hands led to claims by some that the mummies are not human … and may be aliens.

Clearly, they aren't aliens. But even so, what gives? Are they even real mummies? Live Science has found that some of these mummies may represent a combination of the looting and manipulation of real human mummy parts. One of the mummies "looks like a typical Nazca mummy, in the flexed, seated position," said Andrew Nelson, a professor of anthropology at the University of Western Ontario, in London, Canada.

The Nazca people were an ancient culture in Peru who bundled up their mummies in textiles and constructed the sprawling geoglyphs called the Nazca lines. Grotesquely, the hands and feet seen on this mummy, and possibly the others, may also be parts of real human mummies that have been manipulated by forgers, the white coating added afterward to hide the manipulations, said Nelson, who is not involved with research on the mummies.

A number of other researchers also believe that real human mummy parts were used to create these fakes. A dozen Peruvian mummy researchers have put out a statement condemning the practice saying that it "has violated numerous national and international norms. One of the researchers who signed the statement told Live Science that "I particularly find repulsive that anyone would [dare] to dehumanize deceased human bodies.

You can't take away the condition of human to a human being!

Comparing the Afterlives of Peruvian and Egyptian Mummies

According to Jose Jaime Maussan Flota, who is a journalist working with researchers studying these mummies, members of the team pay Mario an undisclosed sum to view the mummies, take samples of them and conduct X-rays and CT scans on them. The mummies were supposedly discovered in by tomb robbers working in the Nazca regionan area where the ancient Nazca culture flourished. The mummies come from "a group of 'huaqueros,' or archaeological treasure hunters, from the city of Palpa," said Thierry Jamin, president of the Inkari-Cusco institute.

Jamin is involved with research on the mummies and refers to the head of this looting group as Mario. He is a delinquent, who is well known to the police services of the Nazca region. It [his group] has looted archaeological sites on the Peruvian coast for more than 20 years.

And justice does not do much to stop him," Jamin said, claiming that he informed Peru's Ministry of Culture about Mario's activities, but has not heard back from the ministry. Officials from the Ministry of Culture did not return requests for comment from Live Science. Videos showing investigations of the mummies have appeared on the sites gaia. The news site RT formerly Russia Today claims that Korotkov said that the mummies have 23 pairs of chromosomes like a humanbut their anatomy looks non-human.

In a video on gaia. Korotkov did not reply to requests for comment and the university gaia. Petersburg University in Russia shows no record of him online. Officials at the university did not reply to requests for comment. Petersburg — doesn't seem to exist. Petersburg — but again no mention of Korotkov on that university's website and officials with the university did not return requests for comment. Korotkov's personal website sells a product called Bio-Well that he claims can detect "human light.

While some mummies in Peru have been discovered by scientists, others, such as the ones that may have been used to create these "aliens," are stolen by looters, who are known to ransack ancient Peruvian tombs before archaeologists are able to scientifically excavate them.

While Mario and his gang may still be pillaging tombs, the situation has been improving, said Ann Peters, a consulting scholar at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.

Live Science. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer.In recent decades, additional archaeological evidence has come to light from two primary sources, the fortress city known as Kuelap, and the cliff face necropolis at the Lagoon of the Condors.

peru mummies essay

Rising up nearly ten thousand feet 3, m. There are many other features unique to Andean civilization, like the twenty-foot 7 m. Inabout miles km to the north of Kuelap, over two hundred mummies were discovered high in the cliffs around this remote lake. The mummies were wrapped in seated positions and sealed within individualized, anthropomorphic sarcophagi overlooking the lake, all of which is highly abnormal amongst Andean cultures.

Many of the mummies had been looted, and some had strange cranial features such as elongated skulls or holes from trepanning a premortem cavity drilled into the skull. Kuelap also had human skulls embedded within the walls, which also displayed stone sculptures of decapitated victims.

The two hundred mummies discovered at the lake were astonishingly well preserved considering how humid the region is. Scientists later discovered that the caves and crags that the Cloud People modified in mausoleums are very cold and dry microclimates, perfectly suited for long term preservation.

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Scores of human remains, artifacts, and biological remnants were discovered at Kuelap, including hallucinogenic plants, sacrificial animal bones, and stone weapons. Evidence of violence and fire were discovered at Kuelap, random age and gender skeletons were discovered in scattered, open locations, suggesting they were not interred there, but rather, that they died suddenly in that spot.

The two-hundred and thirty mummies are now quietly kept at the Museo Leymebamba, but the remains and artifacts from Kuelap are not being displayed, publicly studied, and their exact location is unknown. Archaeological remains, including a reconstructed circular dwelling, at Kuelap in Peru, a walled settlement built by the Chachapoya culture. But with reinforcements brought to him, he marched on the Chachapoyas once more and inflicted such a defeat on them that they sued for peace and laid down their arms.

This description, combined with several others, the anomalous and Old World nature of their architecture and funerary practices, have lead to many theories that the Chachapoya originated in Europe or Eurasia.

InGerman professor Dr. Hans Giffhorn journeyed to the remote cloud forests of northern Peru in search of a rare hummingbird, but left bewildered by what he had seen: the ruins of Kuelap.

Giffhorn identified six complex and typical cultural traditions which appeared out of nowhere, which are inadequately explained by archaeologists and which are essential to testing theories regarding the origins of Chachapoya culture.

peru mummies essay

They manifest in a Kuelap construction methods, b trophy heads and head sculptures, c funerary fetal positioning and high up in inaccessible cliffsd unique trepanation techniques, and e the fabrication and utilization of stone projectile slings. After sixteen years of research, Giffhorn found strong evidence linking the sudden, aboriginal emergence of Chachapoya Culture to Old World Cultures that matched the previously mentioned criteria.

Specifically, he reasoned that these practices mirrored Galacian, Celtiberian, and Balearic traditions.

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